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The reader will note the power to make laws concerning the Census is restricted to the “actual enumeration.” In the case of direct taxes (a direct tax is a tax on property based on ownership), this provision requires Congress to apportion the tax among the individual States based on population. Let’s say in 1790, two years after the ratification of the Constitution, Congress prepared a budget and decided to impose a direct tax to raise the needed revenue.
And, based on the Census, Virginia had 30% of the population of the United States.
The powers reserved to the several States will extend to all the objects which in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people; and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State.
The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation, and foreign commerce; with which last the power of taxation will, for the most part, be connected.
Innumerable things of small moment occupy their attention; matters of a private nature, which require much minute and local information.
The objects of the general government are not of this nature.
The federal government only exists within the sphere of its delegated powers and is constitutionally powerless to act absent a specific grant of power.
It should be noted that there are no implied powers beyond the delegated powers. Congress has been granted “the power to establish post offices.” Therefore, Congress can pass any law necessary to the establishment and maintenance of post offices.