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In one large-scale systematic review of 291 studies conducted over a 40-year period on various intensive supervision programs used with criminal offenders, the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) found no research support for the effectiveness of community-based Intensive Supervised Probation (ISP) with a primary surveillance orientation in reducing criminal recidivism ( = 24 studies).
(For information on "Adult Sex Offender Recidivism," see chapter 5 in the Adult section.) However, WSIPP did find research support for the effectiveness of treatment-oriented ISP, which produced an average reduction in criminal recidivism of 21.9 percent (= 10 studies).
It also does not present an exhaustive review of the research; it focuses on recent studies deemed to be important for understanding the effectiveness of a given strategy.
Finally, its primary focus is on the management of adult sexual offenders.
In fact, sex offender management laws have become so prominent in the United States that the issue was recently identified as the fifth most important area of concern for state legislators (CSOM, 2008).The reasons why this occurs are varied and complex, and they will not be explored in this chapter.However, there is little question that both public safety and the efficient use of public resources would be enhanced if sex offender management strategies were based on evidence of effectiveness rather than other factors.Although some research on juveniles who commit sexual offenses is included, the effectiveness of sex offender management strategies with a juvenile population is addressed in the Juvenile section of this publication.The development and refinement of specialized legal supervision for sexual offenders has largely occurred over the past 25 years.
Specialized supervision frequently involves specially trained probation and parole officers who manage a caseload of sexual offenders using sex-offender-specific supervision strategies that include special conditions of supervision, multidisciplinary collaboration with a treatment provider, and, if appropriate and permissible, the use of global positioning systems (GPS) and polygraph.